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İzmir
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Content:İzmir ([ˈizmiɾ]) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the list of cities in Turkey city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is the second most populous city on the Aegean Sea after Athens, Greece. In 2017, the city of İzmir had a population of 3,028,323, while İzmir Province had a total population of 4,279,677. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River river delta; to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams; and to a slightly more rugged terrain in the south.In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna, a name which remained in use in English language and other foreign languages until the Turkish Postal Service Law (Posta Hizmet Kanunu) of 28 March 1930, which made the Turkish language name İzmir the internationally recognized name of the city in most languages. However, the historic name Smyrna is still used today in some languages, such as Greek language (Σμύρνη, Smýrnē), Italian language (Smirne), and Spanish language (Esmirna). İzmir has Smyrna of recorded history and Yeşilova Höyük of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway on the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. İzmir hosted the 1971 Mediterranean Games and the 2005 Summer Universiade.The city of İzmir is composed of several İzmir Province. Of these, the district of Konak, İzmir corresponds to historical İzmir, with this district's area having constituted the city's central "İzmir Municipality" () until 1984. With the formation of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality" (), the city of İzmir grouped together its ten (initially nine) urban districts, namely Balçova, Bayraklı, Bornova, Buca, Çiğli, Gaziemir, Karabağlar, Karşıyaka, Konak, İzmir and Narlıdere. In an ongoing process, the Mayor of İzmir was also vested with authority over additional districts outside the city proper, extending from Bergama in the north to Selçuk in the south, bringing the number of districts considered part of İzmir to thirty – two of these having been only partially administratively included in İzmir.
Main features
Content:İzmir has Smyrna of recorded urban history and Yeşilova Höyük of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. Set in an advantageous location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Modern İzmir also incorporates the nearby ancient cities of Ephesus, Pergamon, Sardis and Klazomenai, and centers of international tourism such as Kuşadası, Çeşme, Mordoğan and Foça. When the Ottoman Empire took over İzmir in the 15th century, they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key points of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. The emergence of İzmir as a major international port by the 17th century was largely a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, and the city's European orientation. Politically, İzmir is considered a stronghold of Kemalism and the Republican Peoples Party (Turkey).Izmir's port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its Free economic zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey. The workforce, and particularly its rising class of young professionals, is concentrated either in the city or in its immediate vicinity (such as in Manisa and Turgutlu), and as either larger companies or Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, affirm their names with an increasingly wider global scale and intensity. See also: List of companies acquired by Microsoft Corporationİzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. In March 2008, İzmir submitted its bid to the Bureau International des Expositions for hosting the Worlds fair Expo 2015, but it was won by Milan, Italy.
Names and etymology
Content:File:Izmir panorama from Kadifekale.jpg: File:Izmir Turkey.jpg: The modern name "İzmir" is the Turkish rendering of the original Greek name "Smyrna" and "Smyrne" (Σμύρνη), since the city was founded by Greeks. In medieval times, Westerners used forms like Smire, Zmirra, Esmira, Ismira, which was rendered as İzmir into Turkish, originally written as ايزمير with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet.In ancient Anatolia, the name of a locality called Ti-smurna is mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony in Kültepe (first half of the 2nd millennium BC), with the prefix ti- identifying a proper name, although it is not established with certainty that this name refers to modern-day İzmir.The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of which is almost entirely drawn from its cemeteries. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, it was in the western end of the extension of the still largely obscure Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and usually a dependency of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the coast during their Great Kingdom. That the realm of the 13th century BC local Luwian ruler, who is depicted in the Kemalpaşa Karabel rock carving at a distance of only from İzmir was called the Kingdom of Myra may also leave grounds for association with the city's name.The latest known rendering in Greek language of the city's name is the Aeolic Greek Mýrrha, corresponding to the later Ionic Greek and Attic Greek Σμύρνα (Smýrna) or Σμύρνη (Smýrnē), both presumably descendants of a Proto-Greek language form *Smúrnā. Some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazons called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor.. See also Life of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus) and Cadoux. Others link the name to the Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant producing the aromatic resin called myrrh that is indigenous to the Middle East and northeastern Africa, which was the city's chief export in antiquity. The Roman Empire took over this name as Smyrna, which is still the name used in English language when referring to the city in pre-Turkish times. In Ottoman Turkish language the town's name was ايزمير Izmīr.In English, the city was called Smyrna into the 20th century. Izmir (sometimes İzmir) was adopted in English language and most foreign languages after Turkey adopted the Latin alphabet in 1928 and urged other countries to use the city's Turkish name.For example, Izmir in the , by the , by the UN in , by the , in (first listing is Izmir, secondary is İzmir), in , by the , by the , by , by , by , by the . The Turkish spelling İzmir is also seen in English texts, for example, in the .
History
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Ancient times
Content:Main Article: null File:NejdetDuzen KarabelHittiteLuwianMonumentCarvedinRockKemalpasaTurkey.jpg: The city is one of the oldest settlements of the Mediterranean Sea basin. The 2004 in archaeology discovery of Yeşilova Höyük and the neighboring Yassıtepe, in the small delta of River Meles, now the Bornova plain, reset the starting date of the city's past further back than previously thought. Findings from two seasons of excavations carried out in the Yeşilova Höyük by a team of archaeologists from İzmir's Ege University indicate three levels, two of which are prehistoric. Level 2 bears traces of early to mid-Chalcolithic, and Level 3 of Neolithic settlements. These two levels would have been inhabited by the indigenous peoples of the area, very roughly, between 7th millennium BC to 4th millennium BC. As the seashore receded with time, the site was later used as a cemetery. Several graves containing artifacts dating roughly from 3000 BC, and contemporary with the first city of Troy, were found.The first settlement to have commanded the Gulf of İzmir as a whole was established on top of Mount Yamanlar, to the northeast of the inner gulf. In connection with the silt brought by the streams which join the sea along the coastline, the settlement to form later the core of "Old Smyrna" was founded on the slopes of the same mountain, on a hill (then a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a small isthmus) in the present-day quarter of Bayraklı. The Bayraklı settlement is thought to have stretched back in time as far as the 3rd millennium BC. Archaeological findings of the late Bronze Age show a certain decree of Mycenaean Greece influence in the settlement and the surrounding region, though further excavations of Bronze Age layers are needed to propose Old Smyrna of that time as a Mycenaean settlement. In the 13th century BC, however, invasions from the Balkans (the so-called sea people) destroyed Troy VII, and Central and Western Anatolia as a whole fell into what is generally called the period of "Anatolian" and "Greek" Greek Dark Ages of the Bronze Age collapse.
Old Smyrna
Content:File:Klazomenai.jpg: At the dawn of İzmir's recorded history, Pausanias (geographer) describes "evident tokens" such as "a port called after the name of Tantalus and a sepulchre of him by no means obscure", corresponding to the city's area and which have been tentatively located to date. The term "Old Smyrna" is used to describe the Archaic period in Greece city located at Tepekule, Bayraklı, to make a distinction with the city of Smyrna rebuilt later on the slopes of Mount Pagos (present-day Kadifekale). The Greek settlement in Old Smyrna is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC onwards. The most ancient ruins preserved to our times date back to 725–700 BC. According to Herodotus the city was founded by Aeolians and later seized by Ionians.According to Herodotus, the Ionian seizure of the city from the Aeolians was a celebrated deceit that had occurred in the following manner: Colophon (city)ians fleeing internal strife within their Ionian city had taken refuge in Old Smyrna. But soon afterwards, these defectors had taken advantage of an opportunity that had presented itself when native Aeolis Smyrniots had gone outside the city ramparts for a festival in honor of Dionysos, and had taken possession of the city. They forced an agreement upon the former inhabitants, who were obliged to take all their movable assets in the city and leave. The oldest house discovered in Bayraklı has been dated to 925 and 900 BC. The walls of this well-preserved house (), consisting of one small room typical of the Iron Age, were made of mudbrick and the roof of the house was made of Phragmites. The oldest model of a multiple-roomed house of this period was found in Old Smyrna. Known to be the oldest house having so many rooms under its roof, it was built in the second half of the 7th century BC. The house has two floors and five rooms with a courtyard. Around that time, people started to build thick, protective Defensive walls made of sun-dried bricks around the city. Smyrna was built on the Hippodamian system, in which streets run north-south and east-west and intersect at right angles, in a pattern familiar in the Near East but the earliest example in a western city. The houses all faced south. The most ancient paved streets in the Ionian civilization have also been discovered in ancient Smyrna. File:Kadifekale IzmirTurkey EUnluBlogspot.jpg: Homer, referred to as Melesigenes meaning "Child of the Meles Brook", is said to have been born in Smyrna in the 7th or 8th century BC. Combined with written evidence, it is generally admitted that Smyrna and Chios put forth the strongest arguments in claiming Homer and the main belief is that he was born in Ionia. A River Meles, still bearing the same name, is located within the city limits, although associations with the Homeric river is subject to controversy.From the 7th century onwards, Smyrna achieved the identity of a city-state. About a thousand people lived inside the city walls, with others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees, vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located. People generally made their living from agriculture and fishing. The most important sanctuary of Old Smyrna was the Temple of Athena, which dates back to 640–580 BC and is partially restored today. Smyrna, by this point, was no longer a small town, but an urban center taking part in the Mediterranean Sea trade. The city eventually became one of the twelve Ionian cities and was well on its way to becoming a foremost cultural and commercial center in the Mediterranean basin of that period, reaching its peak between 650–545 BC.
Lydian rule
Content:The city's port position near their capital drew the Lydians to Smyrna. The army of Lydia's Mermnad dynasty conquered the city some time around 610–600 BCAn earlier siege laid by List of Kings of Lydia is recounted by Herodotus in the form of a story according to which the King of Lydia would have attacked the city to avenge the ill-treatment received from its inhabitants a certain Manes, a poet and a favorite of the sovereign. and is reported to have burned and destroyed parts of the city, although recent analyses on the remains in Bayraklı demonstrate that the temple has been in continuous use or was very quickly repaired under Lydian rule.
Persian rule
Content:Soon afterwards, an invasion from outside Anatolia by the Achaemenid Empire effectively ended Old Smyrna's history as an urban center of note. The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great attacked the coastal cities of the Aegean Sea after conquering Sardis. As a result, Old Smyrna was destroyed in 545 BC.
Alexander the Great
Content:Alexander the Great re-founded the city at a new location beyond the River Meles around 340 BC. Alexander had defeated the Persians in several battles and finally the Emperor Darius III himself at Battle of Issus in 333 BC. Old Smyrna on a small hill by the sea was large enough only for a few thousand people. Therefore, the slopes of Mount Pagos (Kadifekale) was chosen for the foundation of the new city, for which Alexander is credited, and this act lay the ground for a resurgence in the city's population.
Roman rule
Content:File:Izmir023.jpg: File:Izmir016.jpg: In 133 BC, Eumenes III, the last king of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum, was about to die without an heir. In his will (law), he bequest his kingdom to the Roman Republic, and this included Smyrna. The city thus came under Roman rule as a civil diocese within the Province of Asia and enjoyed a new period of prosperity. Towards the close of the 1st century AD, when Smyrna appeared as one of the seven churches of Asia addressed in the Book of Revelation, Metropolis of Smyrna undergoing persecution from the city's Jews (Revelation 2:9). In contrast to several of the other churches, John the Apostle had nothing negative to say about this church. He did, however, predict that the persecution would continue and urged them, "Be faithful to the point of death, and I will give you the crown of life" (Revelation 2:10). The persecution of Christians continued into the 2nd century, as documented by the martyrdom of Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, in AD 155.Given the importance the city had achieved, the Roman emperors who came to Anatolia also visited Smyrna. In early AD 124, Emperor Hadrian visited Smyrna on his journeys across the Empire and possibly Caracalla came in 214–215. Smyrna was a fine city with stone-paved streets.In AD 178, the city was devastated by an earthquake. Considered to be one of the greatest disasters the city has faced in its history, the earthquake razed the town to the ground. The destruction was so great that the support of the Empire for rebuilding was necessary. Emperor Marcus Aurelius contributed greatly to the rebuilding and the city was re-founded again. During this period the state agora was restored. Many of the works of architecture from the city's pre-Turkish period date from this period.After the Roman Empire was divided into two distinct entities, Smyrna became a territory of the Eastern Roman Empire. The city kept its status as a notable religious center in the early times of the Byzantine Empire. However, the city did decrease in size greatly during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, never returning to the Roman levels of prosperity.
Medieval period
Content:The Turkic peoples first captured Smyrna under the Seljuk Turks commander Tzachas in 1076, along with Klazomenai, Foça and a number of the Aegean Islands. Çaka Bey (known as Tzachas among the Byzantines) used İzmir as a base for his naval operations. After his death in 1102, the city and the neighboring region was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire. The port city was then captured by the Knights of St John when Constantinople was conquered by the Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, but the Nicaean Empire would reclaim possession of the city soon afterwards, albeit by according vast concessions to their Republic of Genoa allies who kept one of the city's castles.Smyrna was captured again by the Turks in the early 14th century. Umur Bey, the son of the founder of the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks of Aydinids, took first the upper fort of Mount Pagos (thereafter called Kadifekale), and then the lower port castle of Neon Kastron (called St. Peter by the Genoese and as "Ok Kalesi" by the Turks). As Tzachas had done two centuries before, Umur Bey used the city as a base for naval raids. In 1344, a coalition of forces coordinated by Pope Clement VI took back the lower castle in a surprise attack in the Smyrniote crusades. A sixty-year period of uneasy cohabitation between the two powers, the Turks holding the upper castle and the Knights the lower, followed Umur Bey's death.
Ottoman rule
Content:File:Hisar Camii.jpg: File:KonakSquare IzmirTurkey 1865.jpg: File:Izmir1883.jpg: The upper city of İzmir was captured from its Aydinid rulers by the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1389 during the reign of Bayezid I, who led his armies toward the five Western Anatolian Beyliks in the winter of the same year he had come to the throne. In 1402, however, Timur (Tamerlane) won the Battle of Ankara against the Ottoman Empire, putting a serious check on the Ottoman state for the two following decades and handing back the territories of most of the Beyliks to their former ruling dynasties. Timur attacked and destroyed Smyrna and was responsible for the massacre of most of the Christian population, which constituted the vast majority in Smyrna. In 1415, Mehmet I took back İzmir for the Ottomans for the second time. With the death of the last bey of Aydın, İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey, in 1426 the city passed fully under Ottoman control. İzmir's first Ottoman governor was Alexander (son of Ivan Shishman), a converted son of the Bulgarians Shishman dynasty dynasty. During the campaigns against Cüneyd, the Ottomans were assisted by the forces of the Knights Hospitaller who pressed the Sultan to return the port castle to them. However, the sultan refused to make this concession, despite the resulting tensions between the two camps, and he gave the Hospitallers permission to build a castle (the present-day Bodrum Castle) in Petronium (Bodrum) instead. In a landward-looking arrangement somewhat against its nature, the city and its present-day dependencies became an Ottoman sanjak (sub-province) either inside the larger vilayet (province) of Aydın part of the eyalet of Anatolia Province, Ottoman Empire, with its capital in Kütahya or in "Cezayir" (i.e. "Islands" referring to "the Aegean Islands"). In the 15th century, two notable events for the city were a surprise Venice raid in 1475 and the arrival of Sephardic Jews from Spain after 1492; they later made İzmir one of their principal urban centers in Ottoman lands. İzmir may have been a rather sparsely populated place in the 15th and 16th centuries, as indicated by the first extant Ottoman records describing the town and dating from 1528. In 1530, 304 adult males, both tax-paying and tax-exempt were on record, 42 of them Christians. There were five urban wards, one of these situated in the immediate vicinity of the port, rather active despite the town's small size and where the non-Muslim population was concentrated. By 1576, İzmir had grown to house 492 taxpayers in eight urban wards and had a number of dependent villages.Boynuzsekisi village in the same plain as İzmir and inhabited in 1532 by 50 Muslim and 29 non-Muslim families who paid its taxes along with the city was an offshoot of the İzmir founded by city-dwellers according to some sources while the Ottoman records refer to the inhabitants of this village as living here since "evvel-kadim" – since times immemorial. This corresponded to a total population estimated between 3500 and 5000.
International port city
Content:File:SAINT_STEPHEN_ETIENNE_ARMENIAN_CHURCH_SMYRNA_Postcard_c._1907.JPG: İzmir's remarkable growth began in the late 16th century when cotton and other products of the region brought French, English, Dutch and Venetian traders here. With the privileged trading conditions accorded to foreigners in 1620 (these were the infamous Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire that were later to cause a serious threat and setback for the Ottoman state in its decline), İzmir began to be one of the foremost trade centers of the Empire. Foreign consulates moved from Chios to the city by the early 17th century (1619 for the France Consulate, 1621 for the United Kingdom), serving as trade centers for their nations. Each consulate had its own quay, where the ships under their flag would anchor. The long campaign for the conquest of Crete (22 years between 1648 and 1669) also considerably enhanced İzmir's position within the Ottoman realm since the city served as a port of dispatch and supply for the troops. Despite facing a plague in 1676, an earthquake in 1688 and a List of historic fires in 1743, the city continued to grow. By the end of the 17th century, the population was estimated at around ninety thousand, the Turks forming the majority (about 60,000); there were also 15,000 Greeks, 8,000 Armenians and 6,000 to 7,000 Jews, as well as a considerable section made up of France, England, Netherlands and Italy merchants. In the meantime, the Ottomans had allowed İzmir's inner bay dominated by the port castle to silt up progressively (the location of the present-day Kemeraltı bazaar zone) and the port castle ceased to be of use.In 1770, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by Russian forces at the Battle of Çeşme, located near the city. This triggered fanatical Muslim groups to proceed to the massacre of c. 1,500 local Greeks. Later, in 1797 a riot resulting from the indiscipline of janissaries corps led to massive destruction of the Frankish merchant community and the killing of 1,500 members of the city's Greek community.The first railway lines to be built within the present-day territory of Turkey went from İzmir. A İzmir-Aydın railway was started in 1856 and finished in 1867, a year later than the Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements, itself started in 1863.A short line built in Dobruja (now in Romania) was started and finished earlier. The wide arc of the Smyrna-Cassaba line advancing in a wide arc to the north-west from İzmir, through the Karşıyaka suburb, contributed greatly to the development of the northern shores as urban areas. These new developments, typical of the Industrialisation and the way the city attracted merchants and middlemen gradually changed the demographic structure of the city, its culture and its Ottoman character. In 1867, İzmir finally became the center of its own vilayet, still called by neighboring Aydın's name but with its own administrative area covering a large part of Turkey's present-day Aegean Region.In the late 19th century, the port was threatened by a build-up of silt in the gulf and an initiative, unique in the history of the Ottoman Empire, was undertaken in 1886. In order to redirect the silt, the bed of the Gediz River was redirected to its present-day northern course, so that it no longer flowed into the gulf. The beginning of the 20th century saw İzmir take on the look of a global metropolis with a cosmopolitan city center. According to the 1893 Ottoman census, more than half of the population was Turkish, with 133,800 Greeks, 9,200 Armenians, 17,200 Jews, and 54,600 foreign nationals. According to author Katherine Flemming, by 1919, Smyrna's 150,000 Greeks made up just under half of the population, outnumbering the Turks in the city two to one,Fleming Katherine Elizabeth. . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 81. . while the American Consul General, George Horton, records 165,000 Turks, 150,000 Greeks, 25,000 Jews, 25,000 Armenians, and 20,000 foreigners (Italians, French, British, Americans). According to Henry Morgenthau and Trudy Ring, before World War I, the Greeks alone numbered 130,000, out of a total population of 250,000.Ring Trudy, Salkin Robert M., La Boda Sharon. . Taylor & Francis, 1995. , p. 351Morgenthau Henry. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1918, p. 32. Moreover, according to various scholars, prior to the war, the city hosted more Greeks than Athens, the capital of Greece. The Ottoman Empire ruling class of that era referred to the city as Infidel Smyrna (Giaour İzmir) due to its strong Greek presence.
Modern times
Content:File:2. Kordon.JPG: File:IlkKursunAniti.JPG: Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the victors had, for a time, intended to carve up large parts of Anatolia into respective zones of influence and offered the western regions of Turkey to Greece under the Treaty of Sèvres. On 15 May 1919, the Greek Army Occupation of Smyrna, but the Greek expedition towards central Anatolia was disastrous for both that country and for the local Greek people of Anatolia. By September 1922 the Greek army had been defeated and was in full retreat, the last Greek soldiers leaving Smyrna on 8 September 1922.The Turkish Army retook possession of the city on 9 September 1922, effectively ending the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). Four days later, on 13 September 1922, a Great Fire of Smyrna, lasting until 22 September. The fire completely destroyed the Greek and Armenian quarters, while the Muslim and Jewish quarters escaped damage. Estimated Greek and Armenians deaths resulting from the fire range from 10,000Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52. to 100,000, p. 233.Naimark. , pp. 47-52. Approximately 50,000Edward Hale Bierstadt, Helen Davidson Creighton. The great betrayal: a survey of the near East problem (1924), R. M. McBride & company, p. 218 to 400,000"U.S. Red Cross Feeding 400,000 Refugees", Japan Times and Mail, 10 November 1922. Greek and Armenian refugees crammed the waterfront to escape from the fire and were forced to remain there under harsh conditions for nearly two weeks. The systematic evacuation of Greeks on the quay started on 24 September when the first Greek ships entered the harbor under the supervision of Allied destroyers.Naimark, Fires of Hatred, p. 50. Some 150,000 to 200,000 Greeks were evacuated in total. The remaining Greeks left for Greece in 1923, as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, a stipulation of the Treaty of Lausanne, which formally ended the Greco-Turkish War.The war, and especially the events that took place in İzmir, such as the fire, probably the greatest disaster the city has ever experienced, continue to influence the psyches of the two nations to this day. The Turks have claimed that the Greek army landing was marked from the very first day by the "first bullet" fired on Greek detachments by the journalist Hasan Tahsin and the bayonetting to death of Colonel Fethi Bey and his unarmed soldiers in the city's historic barracks (Sarı Kışla — the Yellow Barracks), for refusing to shout "Zito o Eleftherios Venizelos ("Long Live Venizelos"). The Greeks, on the other hand, have cited the numerous atrocities committed by the Turkish soldiers against the Greeks and Armenians (locals or hinterland refugees) in İzmir. These include the lynching of the Orthodox Metropolitan Chrysostomos of Smyrna following the recapture of the city on 9 September 1922 and the slaughter of Armenian and Greek males, who were then sent to the so-called Labour Battalions (Ottoman Empire).Marjorie H. Dobkin, Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City (London: Faber, 1972; reprint: Kent, OH: Kent State University, 1988). The city was, once again, gradually rebuilt after the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
Demographics
Content:Tableheader:+Population of İzmirstyle:"text-align:right;"2,0001955286,000 File:İzmir, Turkey.JPG: The period after the 1960s and the 1970s saw another blow to the fabric of İzmir, when local administrations tended to neglect İzmir's traditional values and landmarks. For many inhabitants, this was as serious as the Great Fire of Smyrna. Some administrators were not always in tune with the central government in Ankara and regularly fell short of government subsidies, and the city absorbed huge waves of immigration from inland Anatolia, causing a Human overpopulation. Today, it is not surprising that many inhabitants of İzmir (similar to residents of other prominent Turkish cities) look back with nostalgia to a cozier, more manageable city, which came to an end in the last few decades. The Floor Ownership Law of 1965 (Kat Mülkiyeti Kanunu), allowing and encouraging arrangements between house or land proprietors and building contractors by which each would share the benefits of renting out eight-floor apartment blocks built to replace former single-family houses, proved especially disastrous for the urban landscape.Modern İzmir is growing in several directions at the same time. The north-western corridor extending to Aliağa brings together both mass housing projects, including villa-type projects and intensive industrial area, including an oil refinery. In the southern corridor towards Gaziemir yet another important growth trend is observed, contributed to by the Aegean Free Zone, light industry, the airport and mass housing projects. The presence of the Tahtalı Dam, built to provide drinking water, and its protected zone did not check urban spread here, which has offshoots in cooperatives outside the metropolitan area as far south as the Ayrancılar–Torbalı axis. To the east and the north-east, urban development ends near the natural barriers constituted respectively by the Belkahve (Mount Nif) and Sabuncubeli (Mount Yamanlar-Mount Sipylus) passes. But the settlements both above Bornova, inside the metropolitan zone, and around Kemalpaşa and Ulucak, outside the metropolitan zone, see mass housing and secondary residences development. More recently, the metropolitan area displays growth, especially along the western corridor, encouraged by the Çeşme motorway and extending to districts outside the city of İzmir proper, such as Seferihisar and Urla, İzmir. The population of the city is predominantly Muslim, but it was predominantly non-Muslim up to the earlier quarter of 20th century.İzmir is also home to Turkey's second largest Jewish community after Istanbul, numbering about 2,500. The community is still concentrated in their traditional quarter of Karataş, İzmir. Smyrniot Jews like Sabbatai Zevi and Darío Moreno were among famous figures in the city's Jewish community. Others include the Pallache family with three grand rabbis: Haim Palachi, Abraham Palacci, and Rahamim Nissim Palacci.The Levantine mansions of İzmir, who are mostly of Genoa and to a lesser degree of French people and Venice descent, live mainly in the districts of Bornova and Buca. One of the most prominent present-day figures of the community is Koç family, wife of the renowned Turkish industrialist Mustafa Vehbi Koç, whose company, Koç Holding, is one of the largest family-owned industrial conglomerates in the world.İzmir once had a large Greek and Armenian community, but after the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), many of the Christians remaining in the city were transferred to Greece under the terms of the
Climate
Content:Population exchange between Greece and Turkey İzmir has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: hot-summer Mediterranean climate), which is characterized by long, hot and dry summers; and mild to cool, rainy winters. The total precipitation for İzmir averages per year; however, 77% of that falls during November through March. The rest of the precipitation falls during April through May and September through October. There is very little rainfall from June to August.Maximum temperatures during the winter months are usually between . Although it is rare, snow can fall in İzmir from December to February staying for a period of hours rather than a whole day or more. During summer, the air temperature can climb as high as from June to September; however it is usually between .Record rain= 145.3kg/m2 (29.09.2006)Record snow= 8.0cm (04.01.1979)
Main sights
Content:Standing on Mount Yamanlar, the tomb of Tantalus was excavated by Félix Marie Charles Texier in 1835 and is an example of the historic traces in the region prior to the Hellenistic Age, along with those found in nearby Kemalpaşa and Mount Sipylus. File:Asansor From Ground Level Izmir Turkey.jpg: The Agora of Smyrna is well preserved, and is arranged into the Agora Open Air Museum of İzmir, although important parts buried under modern buildings wait to be brought to light. Serious consideration is also being given to uncovering the ancient theatre of Smyrna where St. Polycarp was martyred, buried under an urban zone on the slopes of Kadifekale. It was distinguishable until the 19th century, as evident by the sketches done at the time. At top of the same hill stands an ancient castle, one of İzmir's landmarks.File:Izmir, torre dell'orologio 03.JPG: One of the more pronounced elements of İzmir's harbor is the İzmir Clock Tower, a beautiful marble tower in the middle of the Konak, İzmir district, standing in height. It was designed by Levantine France architect Raymond Charles Père in 1901 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the ascension of Abdülhamid II to the Ottoman Empire throne in 1876. The clock's workings were given as a gift by the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, a political ally of Abdülhamid II. The tower features four fountains placed around the base in a circular pattern, and the columns are inspired by North African themes.The Kemeraltı bazaar zone set up by the Ottomans, combined with the Agora, rests near the slopes of Kadifekale. İzmir has had three castles historically – Kadifekale (Pagos), the portuary Ok Kalesi (Neon Kastron, St. Peter), and Sancakkale, which remained vital to İzmir's security for centuries. Sancakkale is situated in the present-day İnciraltı quarter between the Balçova and Narlıdere districts, on the southern shore of the Gulf of İzmir. It is at a key point where the strait allows entry into the innermost tip of the Gulf at its narrowest, and due to shallow waters through a large part of this strait, ships have sailed close to the castle.Lord Byron's notes on 8 March 1810 during his travels into the region indicate: "Passed the low fort on the right on a tongue of land – immense cannon mouths with marble balls appearing under the fort walls. Obliged to go close to the Castle, on account of shallows on the other side in [the] large bay of Smyrna."There are nine synagogues in İzmir, concentrated either in the traditional Jewish quarter of Karataş or in Havra Sokak (Synagogue street) in Kemeraltı, and they all bear the signature of the 19th century when they were built or re-constructed in depth on the basis of former buildings.The Atatürk Mask, İzmir () is a large concrete relief of the head of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, located to the south of Kadifekale the historical castle of İzmir.The İzmir Bird Paradise (Kuş Cenneti) in Çiğli, a bird sanctuary near Karşıyaka, has recorded 205 species of birds, including 63 species that are resident year-round, 54 species of summer migratory birds, 43 species of winter migratory birds, and 30 transient species. 56 species of birds have bred in the park. The sanctuary, which covers 80 square kilometres, was registered as "the protected area for water birds and for their breeding" by the Turkish Ministry of Forestry in 1982. A large open-air zoo was established in the same district of Çiğli in 2008 under the name Sasalı Park of Natural Life.
Gallery
Content:File:Kibris Sehitleri Caddesi.jpg|Kıbrıs Şehitleri is one of the most popular streets in Alsancak File:Fayton_02.JPG|Enjoying Esplanade with a ride on İzmir's phaeton (carriage) File:Cumhuriyet Square.jpg|View of Cumhuriyet Square (İzmir) in Konak File:Konak Square, Izmir.jpg|Governor's Office at Konak Square File:Konak_shore.jpg|View of Konak, İzmir's shore File:N Duzen Izmir Etnografya Muzesi.jpg|Izmir Ethnography Museum File:Karşıyaka Bazaar Street 2015.jpg|View of Karşıyaka Bazaar Street from Karşıyaka Pier File:Karsiyaka.jpg|Typical residential buildings of the Karşıyaka district File:Forum Bornova02.jpg|Forum Bornova Shopping Center is inspired in concept by İzmir's traditional architecture File:Izmir Borsa.jpg|İzmir Commodity Exchange Building File:Folkart.jpg|Folkart Towers are the 5th tallest twin towers in Europe with a structural height of File:Mistral Office Tower.jpg|Mistral Office Tower is the tallest skyscraper in İzmir with a structural height of File:Turkey-2859 (2217179146).jpg|Hilton Izmir File:Crowne Plaza İzmir.jpg|Wyndham Grand İzmir Özdilek File:Bayraklı 0565.JPG|A view of the Bayraklı district File:Inciraltı Kent Ormanı.jpg|A view of İnciraltı Urban forest from the bike path dedicated to cycling File:Şirinyer_Hippodrome.jpg|Hippodrome of İzmir in Şirinyer, Buca File:Buca evleri1.jpg|19th century Latin Church in the Middle East#Turkey Levantine mansions of İzmir in Dumlupınar, Buca File:Buca evleri14.jpg|Buca street with old houses (Dumlupınar, Buca) File:Bucaevleri.jpg|Easygoing lifestyle in Buca
Culture
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İzmir International Fair
Content:File:City Park in Kültürkpark.jpg: Main Article: null İzmir prides itself with its busy schedule of trade fairs, art exhibition and congresses. The fair and the festival are held in the compound of İzmir's vast inner city park named Kültürpark in the first days of September, and organized by İZFAŞ, a depending company of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality.
Festivals
Content:File:Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art Center in Izmir.jpg: The annual International İzmir Festival, which begins in mid-June and continues until mid-July, has been organized since 1987. During the festival, many world-class performers such as Solo (music)s and virtuoso, orchestras, dance companies, rock music and jazz groups have given recitals and performances at various venues in the city and its surrounding areas; including the ancient theatres at Ephesus (near Selçuk) and Metropolis (an ancient Ionian city situated near the town of Torbalı.) The festival is a member of the European Festivals Association since 2003.The İzmir European Jazz Festival is among the numerous events organized every year by the İKSEV (İzmir Foundation for Culture, Arts and Education) since 1994. The festival aims to bring together masters and lovers of jazz with the aim to generate feelings of love, friendship and peace.The International İzmir Short Film Festival is organized since 1999 and is a member of the European Coordination of Film Festivals.İzmir Metropolitan Municipality has built the Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art Center on a 21,000 m2 land plot in the Güzelyalı district, in order to contribute to the city's culture and art life. The acoustics of the center have been prepared by Arup Group Limited which is a world-famous company in this field.
Cuisine
Content:İzmir's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history, hence the large variety of food originating from the Aegean Region and Mediterranean regions. Population movement from Eastern Anatolia Region and South East Anatolia regions has enriched the local cuisine. Another factor is the large and fertile area of land surrounding the region which grows a rich selection of vegetables. There is considerable culinary usage of green leaf vegetables and wild plants amongst the residents, especially those with insular heritage, such as the immigrants from Crete. Some of the common dishes found here are the tarhana soup (made from dried yoghurt and tomatoes), "İzmir" köfte, Yuvarlak, keşkek (boiled wheat with meat), zerde (sweetened rice with saffron) and mücver (made from zucchine and eggs). A Turkish Jews contribution to the Turkish cuisine, boyoz and lokma are pastries associated with İzmir. Kumru (sandwich) is a special kind of sandwich that is associated particularly with the Çeşme district and features cheese and tomato in its basics, with sucuk also added sometimes.
Sports
Content:File:Universiade 2005 izmir.jpg: Several important international sports events have been held in İzmir: @an0:WTF@an0:European Basketball Championship@an0:European Women's Basketball Championship File:İzmir Atatürk Stadyumu.jpg: The 51,295 capacity (all-seater) İzmir Atatürk Stadium regularly hosts, apart from Süper Lig games of İzmir-based teams, many other Super League and Turkish Cup derby matches.Notable football (soccer) clubs in İzmir include: Göztepe S.K., Altay S.K., Altınordu F.K., Menemen Belediyespor, Karşıyaka S.K., Bucaspor, and İzmirspor. Bucaspor were relegated from the top tier, Süper Lig, at the end of the 2010–11 Süper Lig. Göztepe S.K. made sports history in Turkey by having played the semi-finals of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in the 1968–69 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, and the quarter finals of the UEFA Cup Winners Cup in the 1969–70 European Cup Winners Cup; becoming the first ever Turkish football club to play a semi-final game in Europe and the only one for two decades. Altay S.K. and Göztepe S.K. have won the Turkish Cup twice for İzmir and all of İzmir's teams periodically jumped in and out of Süper Lig. Historically, İzmir is also the birthplace of two Greek sports clubs, namely the multi-sport club Panionios and association football club Apollon Smyrni F.C. which were founded in the city and moved to Athens after 1922.Karşıyaka S.K.'s basketball department Karşıyaka Basket won the Basketbol Süper Ligi twice (in the 1986–87 and 2014–15 seasons), the Turkish Basketball Cup once (in the 2013–14 season) and the Turkish Basketball Presidential Cup twice (in 1987 and 2014). The team plays its games at the Karşıyaka Arena. The 10,000 capacity (all-seater) İzmir Halkapınar Sport Hall is currently İzmir's largest arena and was among the venues of the 2010 FIBA World Championship in Turkey.Arkas Spor is a successful volleyball club in the city, having won the Turkish Mens Volleyball League and the Turkish Mens Volleyball Cup several times, and the CEV Challenge Cup in the 2008–09 season. İzmir Atatürk Volleyball Hall regularly hosts the games of the city's volleyball teams.The city boasts of several sports legends, past and present. Already at the dawn of its history, notable natives such as the son of its first port's founder Pelops had attained fame and kingdom with a chariot race and Onomastus of Smyrna is one of history's first recorded sportspeople, having won the boxing contest in the Olympiad of 688 BC.Born in İzmir, and nicknamed Taçsız Kral (The Uncrowned King), 1960s football star Metin Oktay is a legend in Turkey. Oktay became the first notable Turkish footballer to play abroad, with U.S. Città di Palermo in Italy's Serie A, during the 1961–62 Serie A. Two other notable football figures from İzmir are Alpay Özalan and Mustafa Denizli, the first having played for Aston Villa F.C. between 2000 and 2003 and the second, after a long playing career as the captain of İzmir's Altay S.K., still pursues a successful career as a Coach (sport), being the only manager in Süper Lig history to win a championship title with each of Istanbul's "Big Three" clubs (Galatasaray S.K. (football), Fenerbahçe S.K., and Beşiktaş J.K.) and having guided the Turkey national football team to the UEFA Euro 2000 Quarter-Finals.İzmir Metropolitan Municipality (İBB) Sports Club's ice hockey Turkish Ice Hockey Federation began playing in the Turkish Ice Hockey Super League during the 2011–2012 season
Politics
Content:The current Mayor of the İzmir Metropolitan Municipality is Aziz Kocaoğlu from the Republican Peoples Party (Turkey) (CHP), in office since 2004. He was re-elected in both Turkish local elections, 2009 and Turkish local elections, 2014. His predecessor, the previous mayor Ahmet Piriştina (CHP) was first elected in Turkish local elections, 1999, but died of a heart attack in 2004.İzmir has traditionally been a stronghold for the CHP, the centre-left Kemalism political party which forms the main opposition in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Being the third largest city in Turkey, İzmir is viewed as the CHP's most prized electoral stronghold, since the party has a more limited support base in both İstanbul and Ankara. Since the right-wing Justice and Development Party (Turkey) (AKP) gained power in 2002, the electorate of İzmir has been notable for voting strongly in favour of the CHP in every general and local election. In the Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007 and Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010 and Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017 referendums, the İzmir electorate strongly rejected the AKP government's constitutional reform proposals. Almost all of the city's districts have returned strong pluralities or majorities for the CHP in past elections, although the party lost ground in the Turkish local elections, 2014.Due to the economic and historical importance of the city, İzmir has long been a strategic electoral target for the AKP, since beating the CHP in their most significant stronghold would be politically substantial. The majority of the citizens in İzmir have continued to vote for the centre-left political parties (in particular the CHP), despite large-scale pledges by the AKP promising investment and new infrastructure. For general elections, İzmir returns 26 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The province is split into İzmir (electoral districts) which roughly divide the city into a İzmir (2nd electoral district) and İzmir (1st electoral district), each electing 13 MPs. 2013–14 protests in Turkey against the AKP were particularly strong in İzmir.During the Turkish presidential election, 2014, 58.64% of the city's electorate voted for the CHP candidate Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu. In contrast, the AKP candidate Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received 33.38% of the vote. The pro-Kurdish candidate Selahattin Demirtaş received 7.98%.
Media
Content:Izmir has its own local media companies: there are 9 TV channels headquartered in İzmir and broadcasting in the Aegean Region, 26 local radio stations and 15 local newspapers. TRT Belgesel (TRT Documentary) is a Turkish national TV channel broadcasting from the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation building in Izmir.TV channels broadcasting in Izmir▪Ege TV |Local TV ▪Kanal 35 |Local TV ▪Sky TV | Local TV ▪Kordon TV | Local TV ▪FRM TV | Online TV ▪Ege Üniversitesi TV |Local TV ▪Ben TV | Online TV ▪Yenigün TV | Online TV ▪TRT Belgesel | National TVLocal radio stations▪Radyo İzmir ▪Romantik Radyo ▪Romantik Türk ▪Radyo 35 ▪Kordon FM ▪İmbat FM ▪Radyo Kordelya ▪Radyo Efe ▪Oynak FM ▪Duygusal FM ▪Sky Radyo ▪Radyo Pause ▪Radyo Ege ▪Ege FM ▪Ege'nin Sesi Radyosu ▪Herkül FM ▪Can Radyo ▪Batı Radyo ▪Radyo Gökkuşağı ▪Yıldız FM ▪Buca FM ▪Radyo Ege Kampüs 100.8 ▪Rock City FM ▪öRT FM ▪Y.Tire FM ▪DEÜ FMNewspapers and magazines▪Ege Telgraf ▪Ekonomik Çözüm ▪Gözlem ▪Haber Ekspres ▪Ticaret ▪Yenigün ▪Yeni Asır ▪Yeni Ekonomi ▪Yenigün Gazetesi ▪9 Eylül Gazetesi ▪Küçük Menderes Gazetesi ▪Büyük Tire ▪Ege Gazetesi▪Torbalı Ege ▪Büyük TorbalıIzmir in notable literary and artistic works
Health
Content:url: http://gavroche.org/vhugo/vhpoetry/turkishcaptive.shtmlThe Turkish Captivepublisher:Gavroche.orgdate:2001-05-29accessdate:2018-05-02deadurl:noarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20170323201147/http://gavroche.org/vhugo/vhpoetry/turkishcaptive.shtmlarchivedate:2017-03-23df:<empty>@an0:Middlesex@an0:Birds Without Wings There are twenty one public hospitals in Izmir. Turkey has consists of a mix of public and private health system, also Turkey has Universal health care care insurance system (SGK) which residents registered with a Republic of Turkey Identity Card (Turkish ID number) can receive medical treatment free of charge in public hospitals. One of the largest hospitals in the Aegean Region is currently under construction in the Bayraklı district of İzmir, with a reported cost of 780 million Euros.
Economy
Content:File:İzmir International Fair from Kadifekale.JPG: Trade through the city's port had a determinant importance for the economy of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 19th century and the economic foundations of the early decades of Turkey's Republican era were also laid here in İzmir Economic Congress. Presently, İzmir area's economy is divided in value between various types of activity as follows: 30.5% for industry, 22.9% for trade and related services, 13.5% for transportation and communication and 7.8% for agriculture. In 2008, İzmir provided 10.5% of all tax revenues collected by Turkey and its exports corresponded to 6% and its imports 4% of Turkey's foreign trade. The province as a whole is Turkey's third largest exporter after Istanbul and Bursa, and the fifth largest importer. 85–90% of the region's exports and approximately one fifth of all Turkish exports are made through the Port of Alsancak with an annual Intermodal container loading capacity of close to a million.
Education
Content:There are a total of six active universities in and near İzmir. The city is also home to well-rooted higher-education establishments that are renowned across Turkey, such as the :tr:İzmir Anadolu Ticaret Lisesi established in 1854, and the American Collegiate Institute (ACI) which was established in 1878.Historically, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the city was an educational center of the Greek world, with a total of 67 male and 4 female schools. The most important Greek educational institution was the Evangelical School of Smyrna which operated from 1733 to 1922.İzmir is also home to the third U.S. Space Camp in the world, Space Camp Turkey.Universities established in İzmir: File:Ege University Sport Hall 3.JPG: @an0:Ionian Universitylast:Agelopoulosfirst:GeorgiosEthnography and national priorities in the post-Ottoman contexturl: http://afroditi.uom.gr/mahabbet/Projects/Documents/NationBuilding/Ethnography%20and%20national%20priorities.pdfwork:Department of Balkan, Slavic and Oriental Studiesaccessdate:5 June 2011deadurl:noarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20110811052109/http://afroditi.uom.gr/mahabbet/Projects/Documents/NationBuilding/Ethnography%20and%20national%20priorities.pdfarchivedate:11 August 2011df:<empty>author1:Θεοδωρίδου Λίλαauthor2:Σωτηρίου ΖωήΗ Βιβλιοθήκη του Ιωνικού Πανεπιστημίου Σμύρνης.url: http://17conf.lib.uoi.gr/files/p.Theodoridoy-Sothrioy.pdfwork:Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνωνaccessdate:5 June 2011deadurl:noarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20120425092452/http://17conf.lib.uoi.gr/files/p.Theodoridoy-Sothrioy.pdfarchivedate:25 April 2012df:<empty>@an0:İzmir Chamber of Commerce@an0:Yaşar Holding Universities established near İzmir: @an0:Urla@an0:University of Gediz International schools in İzmir: url: http://www.ds-izmir.com/Deutsche Schule Izmirurl: http://italokul.k12.tr/Özel İtalyan Ana ve İlkokulu İzmirurl: http://www.esteri.it/mae/resource/doc/2016/03/elenco_non_paritarie_2016.pdfElenco scuole italiane non paritarie all’estero –Calendario boreale, a.s. 2015/16(D.I. MAE-MIUR n. 4461/2012 art. 2)publisher:Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairsaccessdate:2016-08-28deadurl:noarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20160828144639/http://www.esteri.it/mae/resource/doc/2016/03/elenco_non_paritarie_2016.pdfarchivedate:2016-08-28df:<empty>
Transport
Content:File:Adnan Menderes Havalimanı İç Görünüm.jpg: İzmir is served by national and international flights through the Adnan Menderes Airport and there is a modern rapid transit line running from the southwest to the northeast. The city is trying to attract investors through its strategic location and its relatively new and highly developed technological infrastructure in transportation, telecommunications and energy.
Connection with other cities and countries
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Air
Content:The Adnan Menderes Airport (ADB) is well served with connections to Turkish and international destinations. It is located in the Gaziemir district of İzmir.
Bus
Content:A recently built large bus terminal, the Otogar in the Pınarbaşı suburb on the outskirts of the city, has intercity buses to destinations across Turkey. It is quite easy to reach the bus terminal, since bus companies' shuttle services pick up customers from each of their branch offices scattered across the city at regular intervals, free of charge.
Rail
Content:File:Alsancak Terminal Izmir.jpg: İzmir has two historical rail terminals in the city centre. Alsancak Terminal, built in 1858 and Basmane Terminal, built in 1866 are the two main railway stations of the city. The Turkish State Railways operates regional service to Ödemiş, Tire, İzmir, Selçuk, Aydın, Söke, Nazilli and Uşak, as well as inter city service to Ankara, Afyon and Bandırma (İstanbul via İDO connection).
Transport within the city
Content:Co-ordinated transport was introduced to İzmir in 1999, the first place in Turkey to apply the lessons of integration. A body known as UKOME gives strategic direction to the Metro, the ESHOT bus division, ferry operations, utilities and road developments. İzmir has an integrated pre-pay ticket, the Kentkart (Citycard). The card is valid on metro (subway), buses, ferries and certain other municipal facilities. The Kentkart allows use of multiple forms of transport within a 90-minute window for the price of a single fare.
Bus
Content:All major districts are covered by a dense municipal bus network under the name ESHOT. The acronym stands for "E elektrik (electricity); S su (water); H havagazı (gas); O otobüs (bus) and T troleybüs (trolleybus)." Electricity, water and gas are now supplied by separate undertakings, and Trolleybuses in İzmir ceased to operate in 1992. However, the bus company has inherited the original name. ESHOT operates about 1,500 buses with a staff of 2,700. It has five garages at Karataş, Gümrük, Basmane, Yeşilyurt and Konak. A privately owned company, İzulaş, operates 400 buses from two garages, running services under contract for ESHOT. These scheduled services are supplemented by the privately owned minibus or dolmuş services.
Urban ferries
Content:File:Konak-Karşıyaka vapuru.jpg: Taken over by İzmir Metropolitan municipality since 2000 and operated within the structure of a private company (), İzmir's urban ferry services for passengers and vehicles are very much a part of the life of the inhabitants of the city, which is located along the deep end of a large gulf. 24 ferries shuttle between 8 quays (clockwise Bostanlı, Karşıyaka, Bayraklı, Alsancak, İzmir, Pasaport, Konak (District), İzmir, Göztepe, İzmir and Üçkuyular.) Special lines to points further out in the gulf are also put in service during summer, transporting excursion or holiday makers. These services are cheap and it is not unusual to see natives or visitors taking a ferry ride simply as a pastime.
Metro
Content:Main Article: null File:Konak Izmir Metro.jpg: İzmir has a rapid transit network that is constantly being extended with new stations being put in service. The network "", consisting of one line, starts from the Fahrettin Altay station in Balçova in the southern portion of the metropolitan area and runs towards northeast to end in Bornova. The line is long. The stations are Fahrettin Altay, Poligon, Göztepe, Hatay, İzmir, İzmirspor, Üçyol, Konak (District), İzmir, Çankaya, Basmane, Hilal, Halkapınar, Stadyum, Sanayi, Bölge, Bornova, Ege University, Evka 3.A more ambitious venture named İZBAN has begun involves the construction of a new line between the Aliağa district in the north, where an oil refinery and its port are and the Menderes, İzmir district in the south, to reach and serve the Adnan Menderes International Airport. The line comprises 31 stations and the full ride between the two ends takes 86 minutes.
Light Metro
Content:Main Article: null File:S-Bahn Izmir (IZBAN) Baureihe E22000 (CAF).JPG: İZBAN, sometimes referred to as Egeray, is a commuter rail system serving İzmir and its metropolitan area. It is the busiest commuter railway in Turkey, serving about 150,000 passengers daily. İZBAN is a portmanteau of the words "İzmir" and "Banliyö".Established in 2006 and began operations in 2010, İZBAN was formed to revive commuter rail in İzmir. Currently, İZBAN operates a long system, with 31 stations, consisting of two lines: the Southern Line (İZBAN) and the Northern Line (İZBAN).İZBAN A.Ş. operates the railway and is owned 50% by the Turkish State Railways and 50% by the İzmir Metropolitan Municipality. İZBAN is a part of the municipality's Egeray project.
İzmir public transportation statistics
Content:The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in İzmir, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 62 min, and 13% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 15 min, while 27% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 10.4km, while 22% travel for over 12km in a single direction. File:CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a .
Twin towns and sister cities
Content:The following is a list of İzmir's Town twinning: ;Europe @an0:ITA@an0:AZE@an0:MDA@an0:GER@an0:Bremenurl: http://www.rathaus.bremen.de/sixcms/detail.php?gsid=bremen54.c.2259.dearchive-url:https://archive.is/20110718204253/http://www.rathaus.bremen.de/sixcms/detail.php?gsid=bremen54.c.2259.dedead-url:yesarchive-date:2011-07-18Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungentrans-title:Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International Relationsaccessdate:2013-08-09last:Frohmaderfirst:Andreawork:Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei[BremenCity Hall - Senate Chancellery]language:German@an0:ROU@an0:Northern Cyprusurl: http://www.magusa.org/tr/component/content/article/15-%C3%B6nemli-linkler/28-karde%C5%9F-%C5%9Fehirler.htmlKardeş Şehirlerwebsite:Famagusta Municipalitylanguage:trtrans-title:Sister Citiesaccessdate:2013-10-19deadurl:yesarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20150216040256/http://www.magusa.org/tr/component/content/article/15-%C3%B6nemli-linkler/28-karde%C5%9F-%C5%9Fehirler.htmlarchivedate:2015-02-16df:<empty>@an0:BUL@an0:BIHurl: http://www.mostar.ba/gradovi-prijatelji.htmlMostar Gradovi prijateljiaccessdate:2013-12-19work:Grad Mostar[MostarOfficial City Website]language:Macedoniantrans-title:Mostar Twin Townsarchiveurl: https://web.archive.org/web/20131030103002/http://www.mostar.ba/gradovi-prijatelji.htmlarchivedate:2013-10-30@an0:DEN@an0:CZE@an0:CRO@an0:Split@an0:ITA@an0:RUS ;Asia @an0:INA@an0:KGZ@an0:IND@an0:KAZ@an0:UZB@an0:ISR@an0:PRC@an0:TKM@an0:PRClast1:A.Ş.first1:ÜNİBELİzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesiurl: http://www.izmir.bel.tr/en/SisterCities/591website:İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesilanguage:EN@an0:PRC ;Africa @an0:TUN@an0:ZA ;Americas @an0:CUB@an0:USA@an0:Tampa@an0:USA@an0:USA@an0:USA
See also
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Books
Content:Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey: From Prehistoric Times Until the End of the Roman Empireauthor:Ekrem Akurgalpublisher:Kegan Paulyear:2002Smyrna September 1922, 2015author:Lou Ureneckpublisher:Harper CollinsAegean Turkey: An archaeological guide, 1967author:George E. Beanpublisher:Ernest Benn,LondonAncient Smyrna: A History of the City from the Earliest Times to 324 A.D.author:Cecil John Cadouxpublisher:Blackwell Publishingyear:1938İzmir and the Levantine world (1550–1650), 2000author:Daniel Goffmanpublisher:University of WashingtonHistoric Cities of the Islamic World, ''İzmir'' pp. 218–221, 2008author:C. Edmund Bosworthpublisher:Brill Academic Publishers @an0:978-0-7195-6707-0@an0:978-0-300-17264-5
References
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Further reading
Content:], 72. N.B.: Amply ill. with reproductions of 19th-century black and white photos.
External links
Content:@an0:İzmir City Portal@an0:Visit İzmir Category:İzmir Category:Populated coastal places in Turkey Category:Roman sites in Turkey Category:New Testament cities

References

Metropolitan municipalityCountryFETKonak in İzmirHistorical ElevatorKarataşİzmir Clock TowerKonak SquareKarşıyakaRegionAegeanProvinceİzmirCapital townKonakMayorAziz KocaoğluCHPYeşilova MoundBornovaSmyrnaPostal codeLicence plateAnatoliathird most populousTurkeyIstanbulAnkaraAegean SeaAthensGreeceİzmir ProvinceGulf of İzmirGediz Riverdeltaalluvial plainclassical antiquitySmyrnaEnglishTurkishGreekItalianSpanishmore than 3000 yearsrecorded urban historyup to 8500 yearshuman settlementNeolithicMediterranean SeaMediterranean Games in 1971World University Games (Universiade) in 2005metropolitan districtsKonakurban districtBalçovaBayraklıBornovaBucaÇiğliGaziemirKarabağlarKarşıyakaKonakNarlıdereBergamaSelçukmore than 3000 yearsup to 8500 yearsNeolithicMediterranean SeaEphesusPergamonSardisKlazomenaiKuşadasıÇeşmeMordoğanFoçaOttomansAleppoAleppoIstanbulCambridge University PressKemalismRepublican Peoples Partyfree zonejoint-ventureManisaTurgutluSMEList of companies acquired by Microsoft CorporationMediterranean GamesWorld University GamesUniversiadeBIEUniversal Expo2015MilanItalyPanorama of İzmir: A view of central İzmir: Ottoman Turkish alphabetLeidenBostonBrillAssyriaKültepeArtemisEkrem AkurgalArzawaHittitesLuwianKemalpaşarock carvingGreekAeolic GreekIonianAtticProto-GreekAmazonTheseusState University of New York PressLife of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus)myrrhMiddle EastAfricaRomansEnglishOttoman TurkishEnglishLuwianKemalpaşa, a few kilometres to the east of İzmir.: Mediterranean2004Yeşilova HöyükMeles RiverBornovaEge UniversityChalcolithicNeolithicindigenous peoplesTroyGulf of İzmirYamanlaristhmusBayraklıBronze AgeMycenaeanBalkanssea peopleDark AgesBronze Age collapseKlazomenaiUrlaolive oil.: PausaniasTantalusArchaic PeriodPagosKadifekaleHerodotusAeoliansIoniansHerodotusColophonAeolianDionysosIron Agesun-dried bricksreedsrampartHippodamianNear Eastcastle wallsKadifekale (ancient Pagos): HomerSmyrnaChiosIoniaRiver Melescity-statecity wallolivevineyardagriculturefishingsanctuaryAthenaMediterraneanLydiansLydiaMermnad dynastyGyges of LydiaHerodotusKing of LydiaPersian EmpireCyrus the GreatAegeanthe capital of LydiaAlexander the GreatMeles RiverDarius IIIIssusMount PagosKadifekaleAgora of Smyrna: Agora of Smyrna: PergamumwillbequeathedRoman RepublicdioceseProvince of Asiaseven churches of AsiaBook of RevelationSmyrna had a Christian congregationJewsApostle JohnPolycarpRoman emperorAnatoliaHadrianRonald SymeBonnUniversity of CologneCaracallaearthquakeMarcus AureliusagoraRoman EmpireEastern Roman EmpireByzantine EmpireTurksSeljukÇaka BeyKlazomenaiFoçaAegean IslandsByzantine EmpireKnights of St JohnConstantinopleCrusadeFourth CrusadeNicaean EmpireGenoeseBeylikAydınKadifekaleTzachasPope Clement VISmyrniote crusadesHisar MosqueKemeraltı neighbourhood of İzmir.: Konak Square in 1865: The port of İzmir, from an 1883 encyclopedia.: OttomansBayezid ITimurTamerlaneBattle of AnkaraOttomansMehmet Iİzmiroğlu Cüneyd BeyAlexanderBulgarianShishmanKnights HospitallerBodrum CastlePetroniumBodrumsanjakvilayeteyaletAnatoliaKütahyaAegean IslandsVenetianSephardic JewsSpainMuğla UniversitySt. Stepanos Armenian ChurchGreat Fire of Smyrnaurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=BKA0U3FeepsC&lpg=PA250: capitulationsChiosFrenchBritishCretegreat fireFrenchEnglishDutchItalianBrill Academic PublishersKemeraltıbazaarBattle of ÇeşmeAydınSmyrna-Cassaba RailwayDobrujaRomaniaAshgate PublishingKarşıyakaindustrial agevilayetAegean RegionGediz RiverGomidas InstituteAthensOttomanGavurKonak Pier (1890) at the port of İzmir.: Hasan Tahsinfirst bulletoccupying Greek armyoccupying Greek army on 15 May 1919.: Ottoman EmpireWorld War IAnatoliaTurkeyGreeceTreaty of SèvresGreek Armylanded in SmyrnaAnatoliaGreeksAnatoliaTurkish ArmyGreco-Turkish War (1919–1922)great fire broke out in the cityIrving Louis Horowitzpopulation exchange between Greece and TurkeyTreaty of LausanneHasan TahsinColonel Fethi BeyVenizelosChrysostomoslabour battalionsTurkish RepublicAstronaut photograph highlighting the modern urban landscape of İzmir: 1922 fireAnkaraAnatoliapopulation explosionAliağaoil refineryGaziemirTorbalıMount NifMount YamanlarMount SipylusBornovaKemalpaşaUlucakSeferihisarUrlaİzmir Institute of TechnologyJewishKarataşSabbatai ZeviDarío MorenoPallache familyHaimAbrahamNissimLevantines of İzmirGenoeseFrenchVenetianBornovaBucaCaroline Giraud KoçMustafa KoçKoç HoldingGreco-Turkish War1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.Mediterranean climateKöppen climate classificationCsaYamanlarTantalusCharles TexierHellenistic AgeKemalpaşaMount SipylusAsansör (1907) offers panoramic views of the city: AgoraSmyrnaAgora Open Air Museum of İzmirSt. PolycarpKadifekaleİzmir Clock Tower (1901): Clock TowerKonakFrenchAbdülhamid IIOttomanKaiser Wilhelm IIKemeraltıOttomansKadifekaleKadifekalePagosBalçovaNarlıdereLord ByronsynagoguesKarataşKemeraltıAtatürk MaskMustafa Kemal AtatürkTurkeyKadifekaleÇiğliKarşıyakaprotected areaAlsancakKordonphaetonsCumhuriyet SquareKonak SquareKonakMuseum of EthnographyKarşıyakaKarşıyakaBornovaFolkart TowersEuropeMistral Office TowerHilton IzmirWyndham Grand HotelBayraklıUrban Forestbike pathcyclingHippodromeBucaLevantinehouseBucaBucaBucaİzmir Kültürparkİzmir Kültürpark: trade fairexhibitionscongressAhmet Adnan Saygun Art Center: soloistvirtuosiorchestrarockjazzEphesusSelçukIoniaTorbalıEuropean Festivals Associationİzmir European Jazz FestivaljazzAhmet Adnan SaygunARUPAegeanMediterraneanEasternSouth East AnatoliaCretetarhanayoghurtköftesulu köftekeşkeksaffronSephardicTurkish cuisineboyozlokmaKumruÇeşmesucuk2005 Summer Universiade which was held in İzmir.: 2012–13 FIBA EuroChallenge2011 European Team Championships2010 FIBA World Championship2009 Mens European Volleyball ChampionshipWTFTaekwondo2006 European Seniors Fencing ChampionshipEuropean Basketball Championship2005 Summer UniversiadeEuropean Womens Basketball Championship1971 Mediterranean Gamesİzmir Atatürk Stadium1971 Mediterranean Games2005 Summer Universiade2011 European Team Championshipstrack and fieldfootballfootball clubs.: İzmir Atatürk StadiumTurkish Super LeagueTurkish CupfootballGöztepeAltayAltınorduMenemenKarşıyakaBucasporİzmirsporBucasporTurkish Super League2010–11 seasonGöztepeInter-Cities Fairs Cup1968–69 seasonUEFA Cup Winners Cup1969–70 seasonAltayGöztepeTurkish CupSüper LigPanioniosApollon Smyrni F.C.AthensKarşıyaka ArenaHalkapınar Sports HallKarşıyakaKarşıyaka BasketTurkish Basketball LeagueTurkish CupPresidential CupKarşıyaka ArenaHalkapınar Sports Hallindoor sports arena2010 FIBA World ChampionshipArkas SporTurkish Mens Volleyball LeagueTurkish CupCEV Challenge Cupİzmir Atatürk Volleyball HallPelopschariot raceOnomastusboxingOlympiadMetin OktayPalermoItalySerie A1961–1962 seasonAlpay ÖzalanMustafa DenizliAston Villa F.C.Altay S.K.coachTurkish Super LeagueGalatasarayFenerbahçe S.K.Beşiktaş J.K.Turkish national football teamUEFA Euro 2000ice hockeyteamTurkish Ice Hockey Super LeagueGeneral election, June 2015İzmir(1st)(2nd)CHPAKPMHPHDPAziz KocaoğluRepublican Peoples Party20092014Ahmet Piriştina1999KemalistGrand National Assembly of TurkeyİstanbulAnkaraJustice and Development Party2007201020172014 local electionstwo electoral districtsnorthernsouthern districtAnti-government protests in 2013 and 20142014 presidential electionEkmeleddin İhsanoğluRecep Tayyip ErdoğanSelahattin DemirtaşLocal elections, 2014150px: CHPAKPMHPIzmirAegean RegionTRT BelgeselTRTCarlo GoldoniLes OrientalesVictor HugoEdward ElgarEric AmblerYou Cant Win Em AllLeo GordonTony CurtisCharles BronsonDido SotiriouE. Howard HuntMiddlesexJeffrey EugenidesBirds Without WingsLouis de BernièresUniversal healthT.C. identity numberAegean RegionBayraklıİzmir International Fair (center) and the seaport of İzmir (right): İzmir Economic Congresscontainerİzmir Anatolian Vocational High School of CommerceAmerican Collegiate InstituteEvangelical SchoolU.S. Space CampSpace Camp TurkeyEge University sports hall in İzmir.: Ionian UniversityAlbert EinsteinConstantin CarathéodoryEge UniversityDokuz Eylül Universityİzmir University of Economicsprivate sectorİzmir University of EconomicsBalçovaYaşar UniversityAlsancakBornovaŞifa Universityİzmir Institute of Technologyİzmir Institute of Technologyinstitute of technologyUrlaMenemenÇiğliItalian Ministry of Foreign AffairsAdnan Menderes International AirportAdnan Menderes International Airport is the main airport in İzmir.: Adnan Menderes International AirportAdnan Menderes International AirportGaziemirAlsancak Railway Stationİzmir–Aydın lineTurkeyOttoman EmpireCairoAlexandriaOttoman Eyalet of EgyptOttoman Eyalet of Egypt.: Alsancak TerminalBasmane Terminalrailway stationTurkish State RailwaysÖdemişTireSelçukAydınSökeNazilliUşakAnkaraAfyonBandırmaİDOtrolleybusİzmirs trolleybus systemminibusdolmuşGulf of İzmir.: Metropolitan MunicipalityKarşıyakaBayraklıAlsancakKonakGöztepeKonakİzmir MetroFile:Konak Izmir Metro.jpg: metroBalçovaBornovaHatayKonakBornovaEge UniversityİZBANAliağaoil refineryMenderesAdnan Menderes International AirportİZBANAdnan Menderes International AirportAdnan Menderes International Airport.: İZBANEgeraycommuter railmetropolitan areaportmanteauSouthern LineNorthern LineİZBAN A.Ş.Turkish State RailwaysEgeray50pxsister citiesEuropeAnconaItalyBakuAzerbaijanBălţiMoldovaBremenGermanyConstanţaRomaniaFamagustaTurkish Republic of Northern CyprusKardzhaliBulgariaMostarBosnia and HerzegovinaOdenseDenmarkPlzeňCzech RepublicSplitCroatiaTurinItalyVolgogradRussiaAsiaSurabayaIndonesiaBishkekKyrgyzstanMumbaiIndiaShymkentKazakhstanBukharaUzbekistanTel AvivIsraelTianjinChinaTürkmenabatTurkmenistanWuhanChinaXiamenChinaAfricaSousseTunisiaCape TownSouth AfricaAmericasHavanaCubaTampaUSALong Beach, CaliforniaUSAPasaport TerminalIAOIZList of people from IzmirList of museums in IzmirList of parks in İzmirList of hospitals in Izmir ProvinceList of mayors of İzmirList of Ottoman mosques in IzmirYeni Kavaflar MarketEkrem AkurgalKegan PaulHarper CollinsLondonBlackwell PublishingUniversity of WashingtonBrill Academic PublishersCategory:İzmirCategory:Populated coastal places in TurkeyCategory:Roman sites in TurkeyCategory:New Testament citiesCategory:Aegean Sea port cities and towns in Turkey
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