Content:A history of the Charax can be distilled primarily from ancient texts and numismatic sources,O. Mørkholm, "A Greek coin hoard from Susiana", in Acta Archæologica, 1965, vol. 36, p. 127-156. as the city has never been properly excavated.The city was established by Alexander the Great in 324, replacing a small Persian settlement, Durine.Jona Lendering, at Livius.org This was one of Alexander's last cities before his death in 323 BC. Here he established a quarter (Deme) of the port called Pella, named after Alexander’s own town of birth, where he settled Macedonia (region)n veterans.Pliny, 6.31.138
The city passed to the Seleucid Empire after Alexander's death, until it was destroyed at some point by flooding.The city was rebuilt c. 166 BC by order of Antiochus VI Dionysus, who appointed Hyspaosines as satrap to oversee the work.Pliny, 6.31.139 The political instability that followed the Parthian conquest of most of the Seleucid Empire allowed Hyspaosines to establish an independent state, Characene, in 127 BC. He renamed the city after himself.Charax remained the capital of the small state for 282 years, with the numismatic evidence suggesting it was a multi-ethnic Hellenised city with extensive trading links.
The Romans under Trajan annexed the city in AD 116.Dio Cassius, 78.28 Characene independence was re-established 15 years later under the rule of Meredates of Characene, a son of the Pacorus II of Parthia, during the civil war for the Parthian throne. From this time the coinage from Charax indicates a more Parthian culture.In AD 221–222, an ethnic Persian, Ardashir I, who was satrap of Fars (East Syrian Ecclesiastical Province), led a revolt against the Parthians, establishing the Sasanian Empire. According to later Arab histories he defeated Characene forces, killed its last ruler, rebuilt the town and renamed it Astarābād-ArdašīrMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ṭabarī I The area around Charax that had been the Characene state was thereon known by the Aramaic/Syriac name, Maysān, which was later adapted by the Arab conquerors.Yāqūt, Kitab mujam al-buldan IV and IIICharax continued, under the name Maysan, with Persian texts making various mention of governors through the fifth century and there is mention of a Nestorian Church here in the sixth century. The Charax mint (coin) appears to have continued through the Sassanid empire and into the Umayyad Caliphate, minting coin as late as AD 715.Charax was finally abandoned during the 9th century because of persistent flooding and a dramatic decrease in trade with the west.