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Application server
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Abstract

An application server is a software framework that provides both facilities to create web applications and a Server (computing) environment to run them.Application Server Frameworks contain a comprehensive service layer model. An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through a standard API defined for the platform itself. For Web applications, these components are usually performed in the same running environment as their web server(s), and their main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, many application servers target much more than just Web page generation: they implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load balancing (computing), so developers can focus on implementing the business logic. In the case of Java EE application servers, the server behaves like an extended JVM for running applications, transparently handling Java Persistence API on one side, and, often, JavaServer Pages on the other.Other uses of the term may refer to the Service (systems architecture) that a server makes available or the computer hardware on which the services run.
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History
Content:The term was originally used when discussing early client–server systems to differentiate servers that contain application logic SQL services and Middleware (distributed applications) servers as distinct from other types of data-servers.Currently, despite the fact that web-browsers have become ubiquitous and are typically the client for end-users in many application deployment strategies, browser-based web apps represent only a subset of application-server technologies.
Application Server definition
Content:Application servers are system software upon which web applications or desktop applications run. Application servers consist of web server connectors, computer programming languages, runtime library, database connectors, and the administration code needed to deploy, configure, manage, and connect these components on a web host. An application server runs behind a web Server (e.g. Apache HTTP Server or Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)) and (almost always) in front of an SQL database (e.g. PostgreSQL, MySQL, or Oracle Database). Web applications are computer code which run atop application servers and are written in the language(s) the application server supports and call the runtime libraries and components the application server offers.Many application servers exist. The choice impacts the cost, performance, reliability, scalability, and maintainability of a web application.Proprietary application servers provide system services in a well-defined but proprietary manner. The application developers develop programs according to the specification of the application server. Dependence on a particular vendor is the drawback of this approach.An opposite but analogous case is the Java EE platform. Java EE application servers provide system services in a well-defined, open, industry standard. The application developers develop programs according to the Java EE specification and not according to the application server. A Java EE application developed according to Java EE standard can be deployed in any Java EE application server making it vendor independent.
Java application servers
Content:Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (was J2EE) defines the core set of API and features of Comparison of application servers#Java.The Java EE infrastructure is partitioned into logical containers. @an0:Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)@an0:J2EE blueprints Some Java Application Servers leave off many Java EE features like EJB and Java Message Service (JMS) including Jetty (web server) from Eclipse Foundation. Their focus is more on Java Servlets and JavaServer Pages.There are many open source Java application servers that support Java EE including JOnAS from Object Web, WildFly from JBoss (division of Red Hat), Apache Geronimo from Apache Software Foundation, Apache TomEE from Apache Software Foundation, Resin Server from Caucho Technology, Blazix from Desiderata Software, Enhydra Server from Enhydra.org, GlassFish from Oracle Fusion Applications and Payara Server from C2B2.Commercial Java application servers have been dominated by WebLogic Application Server by Oracle Fusion Applications, IBM WebSphere Application Server from IBM and the open source JBoss Enterprise Application Platform by Red Hat, but there are also new platforms, like , which present new approach for architecture focusing on distributed computing and microservices environments.A Java Server Page (JSP) executes in a web container. JSPs provide a way to create HTML pages by embedding references to the server logic within the page. HTML coders and Java programmers can work side by side by referencing each other's code from within their own.The application servers mentioned above mainly serve web applications, and services via RMI, EJB, JMS and SOAP. Some application servers target networks other than web-based ones: Session Initiation Protocol servers, for instance, target telephony networks.
.NET Framework
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Microsoft
Content:Microsoft positions their middle-tier applications and services infrastructure in the Windows Server operating system and the .NET Framework technologies in the role of an application server. The Windows Application Server role includes Internet Information Services (IIS) to provide web server support, the .NET Framework to provide application support, ASP.NET to provide server side scripting, COM+ for application component communication, Message Queuing for multithreaded processing, and the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) for application communication.
Third-party
Content:@an0:Mono
PHP application servers
Content:PHP application servers are used for running and managing PHP application software.Zend Server, built by Zend Technologies, provides application server functionality for the PHP-based applications.appserver.io, built by TechDivision GmbH is a multithreaded application server for PHP written in PHP.
Mobile application servers
Content:A mobile app server is mobile middleware that makes Front and back ends systems accessible to mobile app application to support Mobile application development. Much like a web server that stores, processes and delivers web pages to computing, a mobile app server bridges the gap from existing infrastructure to mobile devices.
Purpose
Content:Although most standards-based infrastructure (including service-oriented architecture ) are designed to connect to any independent of any vendor, product or technology, most enterprises have trouble connecting back-end systems to mobile applications, because mobile devices add the following technological challenges: url: http://www.appstechnews.com/news/2013/oct/17/why-i-believe-offline-access-is-a-game-changer/Why offline access is a game-changer for enterprise mobilitydate:17 October 2013url: https://www.forbes.com/sites/bobegan/2014/04/11/a-billion-smartphones-users-may-be-affected-by-the-heartbleed-security-flaw/2/A Billion Smartphone Users May Be Affected by the Heartbleed Security Flawdate:11 April 2014The purpose of a mobile application server is to build on existing infrastructure to accommodate mobile devices.
Common features
Content:Core capabilities of a mobile application services include @an0:REST@an0:Off-line
Mobile application servers vs. application servers vs. web servers
Content:Mobile application servers, Application servers, and web servers serve similar purposes: they are pieces of middleware that connect back-end systems to the users that need to access them, but the technology in each of the three differs. Application servers—developed before the ubiquity of web-based applications—expose back-end business logic through various protocols, sometimes including HTTP, and manage security, transaction processing, resource pooling, and messaging. When web-based applications grew in popularity, application servers did not meet the needs of developers, and the web server was created to fill the gap.Web servers provide the caching and scaling functionality demanded by web access and not provided by application servers. They convert requests to static content, and serve only HTTP content. Over time, application servers and web servers have morphed from two previously distinct categories, blended features, and arguably have merged.Mobile application servers are on a similar path. The emergence of mobile devices presents the need for functionality not anticipated by the developers of traditional application server developers, and mobile application servers fill this gap. They take care of the security, data management and off-line requirements not met by existing infrastructure, and present content exclusively in REST.Over time, these three categories may fully merge and be available in a single product, but the root functions differ.
Deployment models
Content:An application server can be deployed : @an0:On premises@an0:Cloud
See also
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References
Content:Category:Servers (computing)
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